Texas’ student reading and math results are lackluster and de- clining. According to the State of Texas Assessments of Academic Readiness (STAAR), 55% of Texas third-graders are reading below grade level and 52% are doing math below grade-level. Similarly, according to the April 2018 Nation’s Report Card (NAEP), Texas reading scores are some of the lowest in the nation and declining: Texas ranks 46th in fourth-grade reading (down from 40th in 2015). In addition, the achievement gaps between white and minority children are persistent and the state’s economi- cally disadvantaged population is increasing.